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RFID im Einzelhandel: Entwicklungsstand und Zukunftspotentiale (German und Zukunftspotentiale (German Edition) (German) Paperback – January 30, Faktor hierfür ist mit Sicherheit, dass der Nutzen der RFID-Technologie noch nicht vielseitigen Einsatzmöglichkeiten im Bereich des Einzelhandels betrachtet.
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The current survey indicates that power suppliers have to adjust their business models and increase their flexibility.. These companies are also giving top priority to refining their corporate strategies, increasing customer loyalty and preparing their employees for the upcoming transformation.. After all, the more Smartphones take hold in society, the more the user group of the corresponding apps also increases.. Retailers can benefit from this with the right strategy, explore new sales and marketing approaches, and at the same time increase customer loyalty by combining additional digital offers and services..

Together with retailers, service providers and restaurateurs, NFC from A1 makes the shopping and leisure experience in the Wels city center even more attractive.. Retailers, service providers and restaurateurs can use this new service to validate parking vouchers for their customers without having to leaving the shop.. The simultaneous responsibility for maintaining customer loyalty through loyalty programmes and other customer-oriented activities represents another important function of the Marketing division.. Migros is banking on the new Internet Java card to help it remain at the forefront of modern technology, to enhance customer satisfaction, and thus to encourage customer loyalty..

Information for visitors about current highlights and offers in order to increase customer loyalty and attractiveness of the surroundings.. From my point of view this solution would constitute a major step forward for retail regarding the technical implementation of customer loyalty.. We are using the following form field to detect spammers. Please do leave them untouched. Otherwise your message will be regarded as spam.

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Agarwal, V. Assessing the benefits of Auto-ID technology in the consumer goods industry. Al-Kassab, J. Ranasinghe, Q. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. Baars, H. Toronto, Canada. Bensel, P. Straube Ed. Paris, France. Bovenschulte, M. Chan, J. Rail transit OD matrix estimation and journey time reliability metrics using automated fare data. Cheremushkin, S. Collins, J. Department of the Navy Chief Information Officer. Tutorial: The Value of Information. Dittmann, L. Dutta, A. Production and Operations Management, 16 5 , pp. Erdman, L. Feinbier, L. The benefits of RFID for slab- and coil-logistics.

Fleisch, E. Die betriebswirtschaftliche Vision der Internets der Dinge. Mattern Eds. Berlin, Germany: Springer. Gille, D. Golden, T. Acton, H. Tuunainen Eds. Grote, W. Knoblauch Eds. Nachlieferung pp. Hardgrave, B. Haasis, H. Scholz-Reiter Eds. Harley, S. Heim, G. Decision Sciences, 40 3 , Hirthammer, K. Framework for cost-benefits sharing in logistics networks. Hubbard, D. Hoboken, USA: Wiley. RFID market forecasts Genf, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization. Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Part 7: Parameters for active air interface communications at MHz.

Jensen, M. In this analogy the right product relates to accurate and appropriate information about a uniquely identifiable physical object as well as its form, fit and function. This includes the usage of Auto-ID and appropriate sensor information or any other kind of linked information to the object that can be accessed through the Internet of Things. The right quantity can be achieved through high granularity of information combined with filtering and intelligent processing. It may be sufficient to receive information about an object only once a day or only in the case of a status change.

Consequently, right-time does not equal real-time, a term that is mentioned quite often in relation to the Internet of Things. Unfortunately, real-time capability is linked to high infrastructure cost Figure 1. Similarly, the information availability at right place does not imply any place - but rather, where the information is needed or consumed which may not necessarily be the same place as where it is generated.

Michahelles unreliable or intermittent network connectivity, then effective data synchronisation protocols and caching techniques may be necessary to ensure availability of information at the right place. Again, the cost of any place availability has to be seen in relation to its profit potential. But as mobile devices are more and more ubiquitous, there will evidently be an opportunity to access information in the Internet of Things at any place at a reasonable price.

The right information condition is met if it can be utilised with a minimum effort. This includes human readable information for human interaction as well as semantically and syntactically enriched machine-readable information, which may in turn require transformation of low-level raw data possibly from multiple sources into meaningful information and may even require some pattern recognition and further analysis to identify correlations and trends in the generated data.

The right price is not automatically the lowest price, but instead it is a price between the costs for information provisioning and the achievable market price. Information provisioning costs include labour costs as well as infrastructure costs. A minimalist approach towards a definition may include nothing more than things, the Internet and a connection in between.

Things are any identifiable physical object independent of the technology that is used for identification or providing status information of the objects and its surroundings. Internet in this case refers to everything that goes beyond an extranet, thus requiring access to information for more than a small group of people or businesses. A closed loop application consequently has to be regarded as an Extranet of Things. The Internet acts as a storage and communication infrastructure that holds a virtual representation of things linking relevant information with the object. Combining the different approaches we can conclude that the future Internet of Things links uniquely identifiable things to their virtual representations in the Internet containing or linking to additional information on their identity, status, location or any other business, social or privately relevant information at a financial or non-financial pay-off that exceeds the efforts of information provisioning and offers information access to non-predefined participants.

The provided accurate and appropriate information may be accessed in the right quantity and condition, at the right time and place at the right price. Especially in Europe, numerous projects have been funded to research certain aspects of the Internet of Things. EPoSS 1 brings together European private and public stakeholders to create an enduring basis for structuring initiatives, for co-ordinating and bundling efforts and for establishing sustainable structures of a European Research Area on Smart Systems Integration.

In particular, governance, standardisation and interoperability are named as absolute necessities on the path towards the vision of things that are able to communicate with each other. It defines standards for capturing, filtering, storing and querying EPC data and includes layered standards spanning the whole architecture range from RFID tag memory layout and air interfaces to look-up services that return pointers to data repositories given a particular identifier.

The BRIDGE project was dedicated to the development of easy-to-use technological solutions for the European business community including small and medium sized enterprises SME , ensuring a basis for collaborative EPCglobal systems for efficient, effective and secure supply chains. The ITEA 2 3 funded Do-it-Yourself Smart Experiences project DiYSE 4 has just recently started and aims to enable ordinary people to easily create, setup and control applications in their smart living environments as well as in the public Internet of Things space, allowing them to leverage aware services and smart objects for obtaining highly personalised, social, interactive, seamless experiences at home and in the city.

DiYSE is not looking at business-to-business communication. A single architecture that addresses both business and public 1 www. Michahelles applications based on a standardised infrastructure would be beneficial to bridge the gap. There are several projects and standardisation initiatives on sensor networks, which may eventually converge with the Internet of Things. The core objective of the COBIS 9 project was to provide the technical foundation for embedded and wireless sensor network technology in industrial environments. SENSEI 10 creates an open, business-driven architecture that fundamentally addresses the scalability problems for a large number of globally distributed wireless sensors and actuator devices.

It provides network and information management services to enable reliable and accurate contextual information retrieval and interaction with the physical environment. Likewise, other smaller research projects exist, such as GSN Aberer et al. Sensor networks can be integrated in the Internet of Things for example. Valuable lessons can be learned from this work and from other standardisation initiatives e. While most of the sensor network standardisation activities are still in an early stage, there are already established industry standards promoted through the OPC Foundation 11 and the Association for Standardisation of Automation and Measuring Systems 12 with a focus on industry automation.

It should be possible to achieve synergies between these different approaches in an open Internet of Things architecture.

While identification, sensing and actuator integration are core functionalities in an Internet of Things, there are further requirements such as scalability and robustness that need to be addressed. Again, there are numerous existing research activities to build on. Clustering of resources seems to be one valid approach to address this issue.

Even so, specialised protocols exist for certain desirable features , for example energy- efficiency: EECS Ye et al. Additionally, research on autonomous concepts will influence the further development of the Internet of Things. Technical projects are supplemented by research and coordination activities on standards and privacy. The GRIFS 13 project, seeks to identify all relevant standards for the operating characteristics of physical things readers, tags, and sensors , infrastructure standards for defining the communications, addressing and structures, and data exchange standards.

PRIME 15 focussed on privacy and identity management for private consumers but this proposal did not consider how to empower users e. A more generic approach towards a future development schedule is needed. While technologies are important building blocks, they are not enough to embrace the large research spectrum that needs to be addressed.

The following five subject guidelines may be used to trigger successful and sustainable contributions to the Internet of Things. Envision — A vision of the Internet of Things needs to provide holistic scenarios focusing on private, social and business benefits. Experimen- tally-driven, participative research approaches will be needed to allow involvement of different stakeholders for identification of requirements, usability testing, evaluation and active participation.

Mechanisms are needed for empowering citizens to fully participate and innovate in the Internet of Things, in order to provide a new multi-directional communi- cation infrastructure for researchers, industries and citizens. Extend — To leverage state-of-the-art developments and accepted technologies, existing architectures, such as the EPCglobal Network, should be utilised and extended by adding new functionalities to support diverse means of identification RFID, barcode, 2D-code , sensors, actuators, intelligent devices and other information sources e.

The value of product-related data needs to be increased through semantic enrichment. Extending existing approaches will allow utilisation of prior efforts and investments and allow a phased approach towards the Internet of Things. Disruptive new approaches should be avoided unless they provide substantial new benefits or build on existing work. It should be noted that this approach does not exclude integration of other heterogeneous technologies, but it promotes the usage of a single core architecture.

Enable — It is crucial to solve today's adoption challenges. There is still a lot of research needed on technical challenges that too often are considered to be solved especially by researchers and practitioners lacking the technical knowledge. Privacy, security and confidentiality are key factors to provide a trustworthy Internet of Things. New mechanisms for sharing costs and benefits to enable the creation of opportunities for new market entrants are needed.

Excite — New stakeholders need to be excited to contribute to the future Internet of Things. Ease of participation, collaboration and generation of benefits are major requirements to excite new entrants to the Internet of Things. Open frameworks and end-user programming environments may empower citizens to create cost-free as well as billable micro services, such as a product guides and reviews. Evaluate — New approaches need to be discussed with a large variety of stakeholders and verified in industry pilots and user-centric environments.

A good example for the future Internet of Things is the informed and ethical consumer who requires product-related data e. Other popular examples include public user-centric scenarios that build on the concept of Smart Cities and Smart Homes. Furthermore, we need to evaluate the Internet of Things in a philosophical context as things will become social actors in a networked environment.

Meet key societal needs for the Internet of Things including open govern- ance, security, privacy and trustworthiness. The Internet of Things should not be owned by single interest groups, as it should be an open global in- frastructure as the Internet and WWW are today. Federated structures are needed to provide a power balance. Security, pri- vacy and trustworthiness need to be considered, but are in most aspects not specific to the Internet of Things.

Integrated Billing Solutions in the Internet of Things

The same technologies that have been successfully used in the Internet can be utilised in the Internet of Things as well, although there are some specific challenges due to characteristics of the Internet of Things application scenarios, which often include mobile or portable objects that change custody or ownership during their lifetimes. However, there is a difference in the Auto-ID, sensor and actuator part, where different attacks on the network are possible. Nevertheless, it has to be remembered that the highest achievable security level is not always re- quired.

Definition of FDMA

There are for example different levels of security required for pass- ports or logistic applications. Michahelles 2. Bridge the gap between B2B, business-to-consumer B2C and machine- to-machine M2M requirements through a generic and open Internet of Things infrastructure. While in B2C ease of use as well as human readable data are important, in M2M communications, the data should be machine-readable structured and semantically well-defined. Design an open, scalable, flexible and sustainable infrastructure for the Internet of Things.

The Internet of Things has to be open by definition. Open standards are required to use and extend its functionality. It will be a huge network, considering that every object has its virtual representation. Therefore, scalability is required. The Internet of Things will need to be flexible enough to adapt to changing requirements and technological developments. Its development can be accelerated through the availability of open source software, such as Fosstrak 17 to allow anyone to implement and test new functionalities. Another opportunity to experiment and test new functionalities are living lab initiatives, where service providers and users participate in a collaborative environment.

Finally, it needs a sustainable infrastructure to provide a basis for the necessary investments. Develop migration paths for disruptive technological developments to the Internet of Things. Rather than requiring disruptive new and parallel approaches, there have to be means of integrating new developments into the fundamental infrastructure, otherwise there can be no guarantee of sustainability or enduring value. Examples include autonomous objects that do not essentially require a networked infrastructure.

Nevertheless, providing a migration path for autonomous control in the Internet of Things would broaden its usage and provide a solid networked infrastructure for autonomous objects Uckelmann et al. Excite and enable businesses and people to contribute to the Internet of Things. If stakeholders cannot benefit from the Internet of Things, they will not participate. In contrast, any user benefiting from the Internet of Things will attract and excite more participants.

Research on how to benefit from the Internet of Things is needed. Business needs to see a clear business case. End-users need to find a personal benefit. Funded research, such as that described in section 1. Enable businesses across different industries to develop high added value products and services. Researchers can help to identify new 17 www.

Encourage new market entrants, such as third party service and information providers, to enter the Internet of Things. Information in the Internet of Things can be accumulated, processed and sold independently of owning the physical product. Service providers should be encouraged for example to provide access to multiple sources of information about things and adding technical billing capabilities for information access.

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Provide an open solution for sharing costs, benefits and revenue generation in the Internet of Things. Information should be freely tradable, irrespective of the physical product. Today, wider usage of the Internet of Things is most often hindered by missing concepts on human, organisational and technical shortcomings to share cost and benefits, or even generate revenue from the Internet of Things. Public initiatives to support the usage of the Internet of Things for social relevant topics. Legislation has always been a push mechanism for adoption of new technologies.

While it is obvious that the Internet of Things can be used to provide society with relevant data, some legislative requirements on topics such as carbon footprint, green logistics, and animal welfare would help to show the utility of the Internet of Things for society. Enable people to seamlessly identify things to access as well as contribute related information. How many people carry an Auto-ID reader all day to identify objects and access corresponding information?

Mobile phones today already include a camera that can scan barcodes and 2D matrix symbologies. However, it is questionable how many mobile phone owners will use these technologies. Besides mobile phones, there may be cheap dedicated devices. Nabaztag 18 provides a set including reader, tags and internet-based applications for about 40 Euro. Mobile barcode scanners and RFID readers that can be attached to a key chain and that are as easy to operate as a USB-stick are yet another opportunity to enable mass participation in the Internet of Things.

These ten key requirements are not intended to provide a complete set of requirements. They are meant to focus on certain aspects of the Internet of Things to start a rethinking process for future developments. The EPCglobal Network is widely accepted and has gained the biggest support from IT companies that have adopted the standardised interfaces into their own applications. Numerous products have been developed and certified EPCglobal Therefore, the EPCglobal Network provides a solid foundation, despite the fact that it is still under development. However, the Internet of Things requires a more holistic architecture as described before.

These include layering of standards, separation of data models and interfaces, provision of extension mechanisms, specification of data models and interfaces, initially in a neutral abstract manner e. A future Internet of Things has to integrate stakeholders who will be affected by the Internet of Things, such as citizens, small and medium enterprises, governmental institutions and policy makers, to meet and match key societal and economic needs. Applications that recognise and improve the fundamental qualities of life for users, businesses, society and the environment are needed.

Social platforms to share experience and personalised insights will be integrated with business-centric applications. Discovery and retrieval of useful and relevant information beyond personal expectations will be achieved though engineering for serendipity. Users shall be empowered to access more information about things e.

Results will be displayed in a user-centred design, including intuitive interfaces and Web 2. Direct action on the physical world will be supported through Internet of Things machine-interfaces and introduction of agile strategies. Buying decisions will be supported through the access to relevant information as needed. Agile strategies in this context refer to real-time management and execution capability under consideration of conflicting optimisation values e. Distributed data ownership across the object life cycle will be addressed by integrated billing.

Information will be as easily tradable as products and services. The gap between distributed intelligence concepts e. Openness, scalability and security will be addressed as an integral part of the core architecture. Openness includes social e. The integration and interoperability with mainstream business software platforms will be enhanced and its functionality will be extended through real-time analytics and business intelligence.

Company data includes for example product and usage data as well as company ethics that may influence buying behaviour. Michahelles as people will be able to contribute content. New services and business innovation will be enabled by an enhanced Internet of Things infrastructure including edge devices and back-end services as well as front-end user-interfaces. Companies, public institutions and people will be able to access data for their own benefits and financial as well as non-financial benefit compensation will further add to a fast adoption process of the Internet of Things.

However, if openness, scalability and security can be assured, the EPCglobal Network could be the most promising and comprehensive architecture in the Internet of Things. The availability of free, open standards and free open source implementations for the EPCglobal Network architecture may play a significant enabling role in its development, alongside complementary technologies and standards, such as Open Geospatial Consortium OGC Sensor Web Enablement.

Other extensions, such as support for multiple identifier schemes, federated discovery services, actuator integration and software agents for decentralised data processing and decision rendering, could further extend the functionality of the EPCglobal Network. The extensions are necessary to provide a broader support for other identifiers than the EPC, additional static and dynamic data, actuator support, software agent integration, integration of non-IP devices and offline-capabilities.

Additional structured data in barcodes e. An open, universal identifier translation framework would enable all things that carry a unique ID to be part of the Internet of Things. However, until everything carries a unique ID, the Internet of Things may also need to support objects identified by a classID productID and attributes. A standardized sensor interface to the Internet of Things would help to minimise costs and foster implementation.

Sensors are key com- ponents of the next generation of internet services because they empower bot- tom-up interaction with things by enabling the gathering of information about their state or condition within the real world. The state of the things can be used to feed services at the infrastructure layer, transforming everyday things into true enablers of the Internet of Things. They can be integrated in the Internet of Things through gateways that take care of the computational overhead required to share physical devices over the Internet, while also providing advanced functionality that are not available on the devices themselves.

Actuators complement bidirectional interaction processes by providing the means for ser- vices and users to influence the state of things. The combination of sensors and actuators and their integration in the core Internet of Things infrastructure is an indispensable feature and needs to be considered at all layers of the architec- ture. Software-agents have been researched broadly but have not yet gained consid- erable acceptance in industries. The reason for this may be the lack of stan- dardisation. A standardised interface in the Internet of Things would help to boost the usage of software agents.

Additionally, software agents may help to increase scalability and ro- bustness in the Internet of Things Uckelmann et al. In a holistic sce- nario we imagine things to host a certain infrastructure subset of the Internet of Things. These things may not always be connected to the Internet. Therefore, we envision a certain degree of smart characteristics and autonomy. At the time of writing, the only lookup service currently provided by EPCglobal is the ONS, which only holds class-level records pointing to authoritative informa- tion.

This is currently operated under contract by VeriSign Corp. The existing ONS implementation is distributed across mul- tiple servers globally. Nevertheless, there are political concerns that the ONS is defined under the. This has led to political discussions on governance in the Internet of Things, resulting in national focused approaches in China and Europe Muguet Federated discovery services are needed to enable open governance, scalability and choice of lookup service in the Internet of Things.

In certain cases online-connectivity cannot be assured. Data-synchronisation is needed to support mobile scenarios and decentralised decision making. This billing interface will enable balancing of costs and benefits as well as new business models and revenue generation opportunities for business and citizens based on micro-trading of information in the Internet of Things. Michahelles In Figure 1. Parts of this infrastructure may be mobile and disconnected, thus requiring means for synchronisation of data and logic.

Accessibility of information will be enabled through federated discovery services, which will support open governance and choice of lookup service in the Internet of Things. In the Internet of Things, human beings, software systems and smart things will have a strong need for technologies supporting them in the search and discovery of the many distributed resources available, including information repositories, sensors, actuators, etc.

These search and discovery services will rely upon mechanisms for universal authentication and access control, at the desired level of granularity, through which resource owners can precisely control the criteria that determine whether their resources may be discovered by others.

Like other milestones in technology, the Internet of Things enables us to measure what could not be measured before. For companies this means additional information for high resolution management of industry and business processes. For citizens the possible implications are manifold, ranging from consumer em- powerment to rethinking society. Different infrastructures and networks will compete and interact in the future Internet of Things.

Therefore, the proposed architecture in this chapter is just one possible solution, but it is based on existing developments such as the EPCglobal Network that has already achieved a high level of popularity in business environ- ments. Open Geospatial Consortium Whitepaper. What is RFID worth to your company? Measuring performance at the activity level. Comput J The article pro- vides arguments for the relevance of the Idea of Man in system design in general. I argue that the Idea of Man influences the power relationship between men and computer systems as well as the values that we build into these systems.

Finally, I highlight future challenges involved in integrating an Idea of Man into systems. The article is a viewpoint and its arguments are purely deduc- tive. Its contribution is that it shows how the Idea of Man could serve as a founda- tion for a variety of considerations relating to computer ethics. Sensors, identification technologies, video systems, and online tracking and loca- D.

Spiekermann tion technology systems constantly observe the environment, detect the people within it, and help those people accomplish tasks. They carry out private tasks that human beings either performed themselves or had others perform for them in the past. Some scholars have started to call this networked environment the Internet of Things Fleisch and Mattern With the rapid shift from a solely industrial and corporate Internet of Things to a more holistic approach, including everyday personal computing, ethical ques- tions are beginning to arise.

To what extent can surveillance be accepted? How much control should be delegated to machines? How much transparency is needed for machine operations? How should content be shared through systems? Design- ers are encountering an incredibly lengthy list of issues around how systems should behave, be used, and be deployed. Many IT companies are unsure of how to embed all relevant ethical standards into their IT solutions systematically. As a result, these companies are left alone in a trial-and-error game of what is feasible and acceptable and what is not, often at the cost of consumer trust and brand equi- ty.

Yet, even if companies wanted to build systems to meet ethical expectations, they would face the major challenge of determining which expectations are impor- tant. Does sensitivity to privacy drive ethical acceptability? In this article, I explore to what extent the philosophical construct of the Idea of Man may promote ethical system design.

To date, philosophy seems to have rarely inspired the Internet of Things or even computer science in general. All the more, I believe the reflection to be worthwhile. This task would probably require long-term interdisciplinary effort. Instead, this article introduces the con- cept of the Idea of Man to the technical community. But the best translation for the way the German language conceives of the term may be Idea of Man.

What does he or she look like? On the other hand — and viewed holistically — the term implies an object of aspiration, an ideology or pedagogic idea of what is desired from mankind. What IS Man? Both conceptions of the term have considerable impact on technological de- sign.

Scientists in robotics and software agent development, for example, experi- ment with humanoid representations of technical systems. These scientists want to create an effigy of Man. Humanoid robots like the Japanese Geminoid 19 or embo- died interface avatars are examples of how the idea of human appearance can be translated into technology. Yet, according to the vision of Ubiquitous Computing, a majority of systems that interact with human beings might not be represented as humanoid artifacts.

Instead, they may be integrated into objects and infrastructures, such as the Inter- net of Things that will surround us in our everyday life. The present essay there- fore focuses less on questions of human effigy and more on the question of what role the Idea of Man can play as an ethical concept for technological design in an Internet of Things. This definition integrates two main dimensions of the Idea of Man that could be significant for technologi- cal design: First, the Idea of Man involves assumptions about the nature of man- kind, our individual existence, and our individual abilities.

These abilities relate in very specific ways to the nature and abilities of computer systems.

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And second, the Idea of Man comprises assumptions and opinions about social interaction and society at large. How should people live with each other? The next two sections will discuss these two dimensions of the Idea of Man and their significance for the design of everyday computing systems. Spiekermann 2. When I refer to the Idea of Man hereafter, I rely on only a single conception, namely the one particular Idea of Man shared by many in Western civilisation.

In this conception, the medieval Idea of Man, which is marked by a fatalistic belief in destiny and a God-given disparity between men, is supplanted by a humanistic view of an enlightened mankind. However, sociology is still based on the notion that all human beings can live a self-determined life. This view of men is regarded as an achievement of our West- ern civilisation and a fundamental prerequisite for democracy. In a highly automated and networked environment, how will people retain their self-determination, their ability to make decisions for themselves?

Could Ubiquit- ous Computing undermine the autonomy and choices that are said to characterise mankind? A fundamental step towards answering this key question is to define the power relationship between human beings and computer systems. When we compare ourselves to computer systems, we tend to question our human skills and capaci- ties: Who makes faster and better decisions? Who do we trust to tell the truth?

Who will evolve more rapidly? All too often, we display a latent disposition to trust the power of the machine more than the human subject. But what do such views imply? Do we risk slipping into a perspective that views man as inferior to computer systems and that questions human power and decision-making?

(PDF) Architecting the Internet of Things | Luis Cancino Muñoz -

Do we give up the autonomy and free- dom of choice that we are so proud of? In contrast to what many science fiction novels tell us, automation scholars regularly show that the overall superiority of machines is not a given Sheridan In his acclaimed essay, Fitts tries to objectify the competence relationship between men and machines for the engineering sciences Fitts He states that machines outperform humans in terms of fast reaction time, the use of strong power in a soft and precise way, the complete de- letion of information, or deductive argumentation.

Despite considerable advancements in computing since the s, this fundamental view of the man-machine relationship still has virtue. Machines may be getting better at making complex decisions, but complexity also adds cost and risk to machine operations. The tradeoff between these risks and costs and the efficiency of control delega- tion, this fundamental decision, regarding the distribution of work between men and machines, remains a grey area Sheridan Are fully auto- mated airplane cockpits safer than human pilots?