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Additionally, he enjoys working with engineering policies on licensure, civil engineering curriculum design, and innovative techniques used for teaching in higher education. Swenty Resume. Administrative Assistant swartzkk vmi. Sunnen, Ph. Sunnen received his Ph. Although a medievalist by virtue of his interest in Arthurian tales and their Germanic versions, he has concentrated his research and teaching on 20th-century Germany in recent years. His main interests at present revolve around the Resistance both military and civilian in Germany against the Nazi regime and the efforts to save refugees from war-torn Europe.

Adjunct Professor M. Summers Adjunct Professor Business and Economics. Sullivan, Ph. Associate Professor Psychology. Professor Professional Engineer Ph. Professor Mechanical Engineering. Major Stuart primarily teaches courses on Research Methods and Statistics but also hopes to offer courses in her areas of specialization, social cognition, and decision making. Her research focuses on social and motivational influences on decision making. Commanding Officer Kilbourne Hall streeterch vmi. Streeter graduated from the Virginia Military Institute and was commissioned a 2nd Lt.

After graduating from TBS, 2nd Lt. Upon completion, 1st Lt. Upon his return, Capt. Following WTI, Capt. After the deployment, Capt. Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan. Lab Technician Maury-Brooke Hall stoopstd vmi. Adjunct Professor J. Stephenson III, J. Adjunct Professor Economics and Business.

Marine Officer Instructor Kilbourne Hall starrmi vmi. Squire, Ph. Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering. Systems Analyst Nichols Engineering Annex spaldingpg vmi. Prior to Phil worked two years as a development programmer with Crompton, a textile company in Waynesboro Virginia. Phil assists the IT department in training users on computer applications as well as development of Web Page and PC applications. Phil enjoys flying, woodworking, sports, hunting and fishing. He lives in Stuarts Draft with his wife Sharon. Institute and Corps Sergeant Major sowerswt vmi. Registered Nurse Post Hospital sorrelsvp vmi.

Officer in Charge Moody Hall sorrellssg vmi. Smythe, Ph. Assistant Professor Biology. My research focuses on the evolution and ecology of invertebrate animals. While my primary research interest is in the evolution and diversity of free-living nematodes, students in my lab also conduct research on other invertebrates, especially parasites. Todd Smith, Ph.

Smith, Ph. Professor Department Head Chemistry. Smith is an organic chemist with research interests in natural products chemistry and synthetic methodology. One aspect of this work is the synthesis of novel nitrogen containing natural products; particularly indole alkaloids from sea sponges and pyrazole alkaloids from traditional folklore plants.

Another aspect of research is the use of vinamidinium salts as synthetic intermediates to construct nitrogen containing heterocycles. Prior to coming to VMI, Dr. Smith was a postdoctoral chemist at Research Triangle Institute in North Carolina working on a project to chemically inactivate nerve agents. Smith Mattie Quesenberry Smith is an instructor of American Literature, rhetoric, composition, and creative writing who recently joined V. In addition to teaching at V. Lancaster Community College and a mentor for writers in Rockbridge County by mediating Sub Terra , a local creative writing workshop.

She also coordinates Writers at Studio Eleven with Professor Lesley Wheeler at Washington and Lee University; this is an evening reading series for writers drawn from various communities and proficiencies, including V. As a screenwriter, Smith shares numerous awards with her husband, Douglas N.

A Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Hollins University who was inducted into Omicron Delta Kappa and awarded several creative writing and science honors, Smith focuses on the influences of science and technology on the poetic voice, and she explores the intersections between science and the composition of metaphor. Also interested in the impact of natural events on the history of humankind, she is contributing to a feature film project and related graphic novel series adapted from Eagle in the Snow , a novel written by Wallace Breem and set on the Rhine River, A.

Smith, Jr. Professor Computer and Information Sciences. Associate Professor Economics and Business. Adjunct Instructor M. Financial Services Specialist Marshall Hall sircyjm vmi. Assistant Director B Letcher Avenue siglerdg vmi. Shihab Mohammed Shihab obtained his M. Before coming to VMI in fall , Mr. He has taught a variety of topics, including the Arabic language all levels , Arabic media, and Arabic societies.

Moreover, he is a native Arabic speaker and is able to communicate in more than six dialects Iraqi, Egyptian, Syrian, Lebanese, most dialects of Arab Gulf countries as well as Modern Standard Arabic. He has experience tutoring and working with upper-level college and post-graduate students from the Defense Language Institute DLI and the Department of State. Shihab has more than five years of experience in both written and oral, written translation documents, literary works, conferences, etc.

Professor Henry King Burgwyn, Jr. Chair in Military History Ph. Chair in Military History. She received her Ph. Her special field of study is ancient intelligence history. She has written more than three dozen articles on aspects of ancient intelligence. Director Ed. Writing Center Consultant Carroll Hall sheffieldeg10 vmi.

Sheffield Elise Sheffield has been a part-time member of the Writing Center team for the past five years. Previously a college instructor of composition and literature, she also works part-time as education director for Boxerwood Nature Center just outside Lexington. Shear, Jr. Visiting Professor Civil and Environmental Engineering. Shear Resume. Instructor Kilbourne Hall sheardr vmi.

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John Dee: Interdisciplinary Studies in English Renaissance Thought

Shear Instructor Military Science and Leadership. Administrative Assistant Scott Shipp Hall shaferdp vmi. Sen, Ph. Executive Secretary schulzmt vmi. Prior to coming to VMI in , he taught for several years at James Madison University as a graduate student and adjunct faculty member. Currently teaching ERH and , Micah enjoys the opportunity to encourage and facilitate thoughtful, deliberate student writing. He lives in Staunton, VA with his wife, son, and dog in that order. When he is not in the classroom or in his office, you might find him camping or hiking in the mountains, playing tennis or ultimate Frisbee, or simply playing in the yard at his house.

Schroepfer enlisted in the United States Marine Corps upon graduating high school. He later deployed to Al-Anbar province, Iraq and worked as an Arabic translator for the remainder of his enlistment. After leaving the Marines, he attained his B. Human Resources Assistant schemehornrd vmi. Adjunct Faculty M. Saunders Resume.

Web Specialist Smith Hall sandridgejf vmi. Lab Technician Maury-Brooke Hall sandersonvl vmi. Military Science Instructor Kilbourne Hall sanderscd vmi. Sanborn IV, Ph. Professor International Studies and Political Science. Lecturer M. Sadler, Jr. Lecturer Mechanical Engineering. Comptroller Smith Hall ryanka vmi. Administrative Assistant D Kilbourne Hall ruffinkg vmi. Ruffin Career Path. Ruffin worked for a year after completing her degree as a College Admissions Counselor.

From Ms. Hired as Administrative Assistant present. Director of Activities rubensteinsd vmi. Communications and Marketing Specialist Marshall Hall roycm vmi. Rowe, Ph. Professor Biology. Specialty: My general area of specialization is vertebrate biology. First, my students and I have been investigating nest defense behavior in Tree Swallows. Specifically, we have been examining the reaction of nesting birds to the presence of a nest competitor or a predator. Procurement Practitioner Construction Office rowejn vmi. Roskelley, P.

Adjunct Faculty Civil and Environmental Engineering. Executive Officer M. Rogers, Ph. Professor Civil and Environmental Engineering. Rogers Resume. Cashier, Student Accounting Smith Hall rogersdf vmi. Network Manager Nichols Engineering Annex robinsonwl vmi. In he moved to the Electrical Engineering Department as an electronics technician. With the coming of personal computers to VMI the emphasis on electronics and electrical engineering shifted toward computing. Eventually the position evolved to building and maintaining computing labs for the Engineering Division and specializing in installing and maintaining engineering specific software packages.

Wes holds an a B. Licensed Practical Nurse Post Hospital robinettetb vmi. Riley Adjunct Professor Economics and Business. Riester, Jr. Duncan J. Richter Duncan Richter teaches courses on ethics, the history of philosophy, and religion. His research focuses on ethics and the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Richardson, Ph. Professor Physical Education. Patrick Rhamey, Ph. Military Science Instructor Kilbourne Hall rectanr vmi. Nathan R. Recta Instructor Military Science and Leadership. Instructor Ph. Raymond, Ph. Instructor Chemistry. Administrative Assistant Scott Shipp Hall ramseymk vmi. Sergeant Letcher Avenue ramseycc vmi.

Assistant Professor Professional Engineer Ph. Assistant Professor Civil and Environmental Engineering. Writer Smith Hall priceml vmi. Administrative and Program Specialist Admissions Office pottermc vmi. Executive Secretary Scott Shipp Hall potterdv vmi. Institute Chaplain Old Hospital phillipsre vmi.

Army as a field artillery officer. In he left active duty to pursue his seminary degree and then returned to active duty as a chaplain in He was forward deployed with the th Signal Brigade in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Army War College. He is a VMI alum, graduating in with a B. He and his wife Tracy were married in May the day after graduation. They have four adult children, Robert, Timothy, Kathryn, and Carolina. Associate Registrar for Academic Support M. Pharr, Ph. Professor Chemistry. Dan Pharr is an analytical chemist with special interests in the effects of micellar solutions on atomic absorption spectrophotometry and D.

Plasma spectrophotometry. He is also interested in environmental analysis, in particular the determination of petroleum products in groundwater and soil by synchronous scanning fluorescence. Pharr has been awarded the Hinman and Maury Research awards in recognition of his efforts to involve cadets in pertinent, current research projects. He is the editor of the Journal of Undergraduate Chemistry Research.

Away from the office, Dr. Pharr enjoys classical music since to the present opera in particular and Icelandic literature and history. Administrative Assistant Smith Hall perrycw vmi. Assistant Commandant Third Barracks perryco vmi. Major Perry was also a scholarship athlete on the VMI football team.

Marshall Citizen soldier award while at VMI. Nurse Administrator Post Hospital perrycm vmi. Military Science Instructor Kilbourne Hall perkinsjl vmi. Perkins Instructor Military Science and Leadership. Superintendent Smith Hall peayjb vmi.

He was born in Richmond, Virginia on 10 May As a cadet, he was a quarterback on the football team, a member of the Honor Court, and a Battalion Commander. General Peay's initial troop assignments were in Germany and Colorado. He wears U. Their grandfather was J. Peay Jr. Project Manager Construction Office paynerd vmi. Sergeant Letcher Avenue pattersonpe vmi. Writing Center Consultant Carroll Hall parsonsld vmi. Her university-level teaching experience includes Sanskrit, South Asian civilization, and film studies.

More recently, Laura has worked as both a book editor and a magazine editor. In addition, she is an artist, specializing in mixed-media installations, and she has a background in design and computer graphics. Writing Center Consultant Carroll Hall parsongg vmi. I believe that clear written expression begins with critical thinking and oral communication. Billy J. Parson Instructor Biology. Secretary to General Peay Smith Hall parrentlr vmi. Government Relations Officer Smith Hall parkerkc vmi.

Human Resources Director Letcher Avenue parellara vmi. Panko Lt. Tom has over 20 years of experience in the information services and technology industries. He has worked in the public and private sectors over the course of his career and his professional responsibilities included work as a technician, installer, operator and administrator of multiple IBM minicomputer systems as well as various microcomputer-based systems. Panko has also served as a network administrator on multiple networks and worked as a programmer and systems analyst for many years.

Police Officer Letcher Avenue panebiancojs vmi. Instructor Kilbourne Hall overstreetja vmi. Overstreet Instructor Military Science and Leadership. Osborne, Ph. He has also appeared in eleven encyclopedias, writing on topics in naval warfare, imperialism, and diplomacy. It will be published in November Currently, Dr. Writing Center Consultant Carroll Hall oleksyshynnj vmi.

Her university-level teaching experience includes lecturing Introductory Art History and leading seminars in Contemporary, Eastern European and Post-Soviet studies. In addition, she is a freelance graphic designer, who is interested in helping nonprofits build a strong visual brand and online presence.

In her off hours, she enjoys reading, visiting museums, and travelling. Multimedia Coordinator Smith Hall nyeke vmi. Newhouse, Ph.

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Charles S. Luck, Jr. Before teaching at TTU, he received his Ph. His dissertation work focused on developing a better way to connect large precast bridge girders to improve their long-term durability. The work lead to a new state standard. From to , Col. At VMI, Col. Newhouse has served as an assistant officer in charge in barracks and class advisor for the class of Newhouse was married in and obtained his PE license in He has two kids, Benjamin and Lydia. Newhouse is a structural engineer specializing in the design of concrete and prestressed concrete.

He has extensive bridge design and inspection experience. He has used his design and inspection experience at VMI to help cadets make the connection between academic theory and real-life problem-solving. This focus has lead him to write several papers for ASEE that focus on ways to improve learning in engineering curricula. He advocates for cadets to take and pass the FE exam. Newhouse Resume. Wayne Neel, Ph. Adjunct Instructor B. Supervisor of Interpretation 8 E. Washington Street neasdm vmi.

Marine Officer Instructor Kilbourne Hall murphyjf vmi. Instructor Kilbourne Hall motterbk vmi. Assistant Professor Economics and Business. Moreschi, Ph. Moosman, Jr. Associate Professor Biology. Most of my upper-level courses have a strong field component, to provide hands-on experience with the subject matter and encourage a deeper level of understanding. Moosman Instructor Physical Education. Administrative Assistant D Old Barracks moorevd vmi. Pipe Band Director Shell Hall mitchellb vmi. He has been the full time piping instructor at VMI since and has taught cadets who have never played before to become proficient players in the Pipe Band consisting in excess of forty-five members.

Major Mitchell is designing an American Military Pipe Band system suited for the rising number of institutions using the bagpipes for their ceremonies. He conducts teaching seminars for pipe bands and summer piping schools for individual players. Supervisor of Historical Interpretation minksc vmi. Instructor Kilbourne Hall millerja vmi. Miller Instructor Military Science and Leadership.

Miller, Ph. Although her graduate work at the University of Virginia focused on John Donne, she has spent the past twenty-five years teaching Shakespeare. Since , she has served as organizer and key presenter for panels on teaching Shakespeare at the annual meeting of the American Culture Association in the South, and she has frequently featured cadet presenters in the program.

In , Col. Adjunct Professor Ph. McMasters Professor Mechanical Engineering. Photographer Smith Hall mclaughlinhl vmi. Office Manager Smith Hall mckemyai vmi. Supply Technician Kilbourne Hall mcfaddenm vmi. He served in the Army as a Supply Sergeant for 20 years and retired in McDonald, Ph. While serving as Associate Dean of the Faculty since , he has continued to teach in the department as a professor of English and fine arts. Since , he has been editor of the journal Studies in American Culture.

For more than a decade, Colonel McDonald has been exploring photography as a creative extension of his academic interests in the literature and culture of the South. Hinman, Jr. Award for Undergraduate Research and Professor Institute Director of Writing Ph.

In addition to teaching courses in first-year and advanced composition, the history of rhetoric, and the rhetorics of particular discourse communities, she is responsible for ensuring the integrity of writing instruction in the disciplines across Post to ensure that VMI graduates are able to communicate effectively for a variety of occasions and purposes.

For nine years before coming to VMI, Col. McDonald taught undergraduate and graduate courses in both literature and writing at James Madison University, where she served as director of composition and founding head of the Writing Program, an independent academic unit in the College of Arts and Letters. An honors graduate of Rollins College, she earned her Ph. His present research is a statistically intensive social analysis of civil litigation in colonial Virginia, from which he has published five juried journal essays in the last four years.

McCain, Ph. Associate Professor Chemistry. McCain is a biochemist with research interests in the study of enzymes. His research involves studying the detailed mechanisms of enzymes using techniques such as enzyme kinetic assays, UV-Vis spectrometry, bacterial transformation, protein expression and purification, chromatography, and site-directed mutagenesis. McCain did his thesis research in the laboratory of Zhong-Yin Zhang at Albert Einstein College of Medicine where he studied the mechanisms of protein phosphatases.

Administrative Assistant Letcher Avenue mcbrayerhm vmi. Assistant Professor M. His responsibilities include instructing, developing, and mentoring cadets to become quality leaders for the United States Air Force. Payroll Supervisor Smith Hall mayhewmb vmi. Network Technician Nichols Engineering Annex mattesonje vmi. The last 3 years as a Computer Technician. Jeff has over 13 years troubleshooting, repairing, and installing computers.

On the cadet side, he has established computer recommendations and the cadet computer pamphlet. Budget Analyst Smith Hall mattesonca vmi. Matsui Dr. John H. Matsui teaches advanced courses on the American Civil War and Reconstruction as well as a two-semester survey of the history of the United States.

As a historian of the nineteenth-century United States, his research emphasizes religion and the geographical growth of the United States in a global context. He serves as a junior member of the editorial board of the Journal of Military History and keeps track of recent doctoral dissertations in military history. Curriculum Vita. Chief of Police Letcher Avenue marshallml vmi. Military Science Instructor Kilbourne Hall marshallbb vmi.


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Bursar Smith Hall manuelsb vmi. Registered Nurse Post Hospital mahoodtd vmi. Director Smith Hall macinnissd vmi. In addition to providing leadership and direction to the office, he is responsible for the media relations efforts of VMI, working with reporters and editors at local, regional, and national media outlets to tell VMI's story. He directs the production of the Institute Report, VMI's internal communications publication, as well as performs other duties to ensure the public's perception of VMI remains strong and positive.

Prior to his appointment, MacInnis was a public relations manager at Virginia Tech. MacInnis' previous public relations experience includes eight years as public affairs officer for the Virginia National Guard. In that capacity he provided public relations support to Army National Guard and Air National Guard units mobilized for Operation Desert Storm, and for units called up to deal with several natural and man-made disasters.

Prior to that, MacInnis was a newspaper reporter and editor on several weekly and daily newspapers in Virginia. MacInnis served on active duty with the U. Army from to He served as an infantry scout platoon leader, as a company commander, and as logistics officer for a battalion staff.

He commanded a rifle company that deployed for training to the Republic of Korea in , and he commanded a Mobile Public Affairs Detachment that deployed to the Republic of Panama to provide support throughout Central America to U. Southern Command in He served as the public affairs officer for the Virginia National Guard's State Area Command from to his military retirement in Adjunct Professor Internship Coordinator B.

Ma received his Ph. Before joining VMI, he spent a year as a Visiting Assistant Professor at the College of William and Mary in which he taught a variety of literature, film, and popular culture courses on China. His main academic interests are in Chinese cinema and literature, film history and theory, East Asian studies, and critical theory. Registered Nurse Post Hospital lowdersd vmi. Deputy Director Marshall Hall looneypg vmi. Security Officer Letcher Avenue lizottear vmi. Livingston, Ph. Electrical Engineering, Old Dominion University. Dave teaches the computers and robotics modules of the curriculum introduction course, combinational circuits, sequential circuits and digital systems, computer design, and microcontrollers in the department.

He also serves as the branch counselor for the student branch of the IEEE and is active in K outreach. Dave is a licensed Professional Engineer in the Commonwealth of Virginia. His research interests include evolutionary robotics, computational intelligence, embedded systems, computer architecture, and applications programming. Administrative Assistant and Receptionist Post Hospital lineberrydm vmi. Instructor Kilbourne Hall lillycp vmi. Lilly Instructor Military Science and Leadership. Lilly, Ph. Expertise: Molecular biology, genetics, and DNA biogeography of the distribution of noxious microorganisms.

Deputy Commandant Old Barracks levensongm vmi. Commandant Office Manager Old Barracks leechhc vmi. Marketing Director Smith Hall leachka vmi. Treasurer Smith Hall lawhornejl vmi. Lasisi, Ph. Houses leaned together the colors wine and brown. Remember the cracked snow, our scarves floating, getting there out of breath, our hair melting. Boots clicked under the door. There were quilts on the sloped ceiling and the old stove you smiled toward going to heat up some coffee. I kept looking around to get it right: your suede jacket hanging in several places.

I'm walking out of branches, wood, Daphne run backwards, my own breakwater this time. Blue shells, sun cupped in the arm of some one who doesn't own or want to own me. The leaves he pulls from my skin are stained with the verbs of someone who didn't see what she could.


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  • Salt air chews them. We dream of Nantucket, wine in a gray wood someday. You know I never wanted a man just for myself but didn't know that. Old women unbutton black coats, feel the light, dreams moving in their throat like birds. They are willow roots hanging on under the sand, pushing deep. White crystals, white petals. The green of your words out-jades the geranium. A jolt, your words after almost a year. Not even the spears of pink leaves I could smell from the road as much comfort.

    Then you didn't. War dreams hang in branches. I think maybe Jakarta, he wrote me once from there. The geranium that should have died spreads thru the sunroom. Last year's oak leaves hang on the branches. The petals I smelled from the road smashed into mud. Pink spears gone, the tips of the spears he wrote about dissolve. Rain, the branches, pink lace over, I watch for his screen name. I was over that. I said I didn't know how to change anything. How little I knew. Sputnik in his long dying path comes again, lover, on Fordham Road where I watched him in now they are visible again, their light so close now, closing, closing.

    NORAD wants to take a nap but they are not allowed, they need to get milk on their way home. Milk, milk, my goat is sick. My goat is sick, Manhattan. Come closer to me now and let me whisper: - - John was from the factory. He was a swarthy man, and he knew boats, too, the way your father might have, or his father. I know you know his face even if you forget it. Why not bow? Subside and subsume into the labor of your late hands? He's driving over the Brooklyn Bridge, on his rickshaw.

    Soccer mom, soccer mom, sweetheart, you got good legs, you got the laundry done, not as much water now. Laundering that information right along your orbital path. Centigrade for Silicon, Ray of Green Valley, honey, your Ipad won't show you a thing, darling, it's clean enough for corporate work, chap those palms. Manahatta, Manahatta, man in their hats.

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    What hats, sailor? Ones I've never seen. From over the sea. Tattoos the art of security, code it tight honey and you can scan it any way you want, you know what I mean? Only a monthly re-entry for her. PMS isn't a syndrome; it's a new diplomacy. It is all we have now. But so what? A lot of people did. You think that makes you special? Let me tell you something: it doesn't. White or black, buddy? We've got other people here. They're always cruisin' around that moon.

    But don't cruise too long, people'll notice. Weiss got her rad-hard solar panels? And we helped her put it together in her garage? You have to help keep up the neighborhood. Sink those Cubans while you get the chance, their Zodiacs are closing in on Battery Park. The solar wind is lovely tonight, honey. Don't stay out too late. Smith, Mrs. Weiss, Mrs. Molnar, Mrs. Sucharitkul of Hell's Kitchen, the Bowery, The Upper East Side are chomping at their bit this week, that new teacher is too young, he's arrogant, what book does he have our children reading? What book, son? What book did they show you?

    From over the sea, Dad! What sea is that? Some sea I saw! You be careful now. My goodness, even 50th floor traffic is getting bad these days. Too many foreign billionaires. What happened to our good domestic billionaires? Like a turkey in the corn, neighbor. Is it safety, mother?

    I know you let me climb that big old rock. Why did you have to go all the way up in the sky? Who was it hurt you, ladies, and gentlemen, ancient castle ancient tomb? Soccer mom, soccer mom, I saw your stocking. Pantyhose in the 21st Century, my God, a Jewish nose and the eyes of the Messiah. Soccer mom I heard you panting. No you didn't! I heard you panting at the jet fuel station, take it easy, you're on overload! A thousand soccer moms orbit your Earth, Manahatta, this late day, this old century, undone and undreamed and unborn, flat out past your projections or memories of Antwerp and the miles of deep amber grain, the loads of coffee and sugar, flat out and bourne through I have your old Caribbean pistol shot pegged hard at five knots, a zeppelin or an investment, but not both, standing sleepy and afraid on your Empire State.

    I heard you barking! Why didn't you land? We don't need another Saltan Sea! No it's not just like the sprinkler schedule on the baseball field. That pipeline must be five megaliters per minute or something! Your heat shield is thick enough, isn't it, couldn't you have done something? Mexico is still a good neighbor. A thousand moms, the gentlest oligarchs, the best bakers, Neosporin in their back pocket, a primer on five centuries of the sea claims on the Northwest Passage in their front, like Alder Wing's "rapture for nerds" they are building a religion and building it better, they are sailing in Pandora.

    A thousand, a thousand, soccer moms, mothers of our last night, mothers of our new North American heart, who will not ever tell me who I am. Scurry me into one of your balls! I'll creep like an insect under the red giant. Anything but this, Vance. Isn't it, Knoxville, after you've coiled the hose and that small familiar spirit dogging our tracks turns out to be this late American Dream? Who was it hurt you, ladies, and gentlemen? But we don't send them to the women no more. Not on this street. At that speed you'll need to wait 6 minutes for an answer. Just get out of that goddamned rocket ship!

    Yeah, you saw those Muslims standing in line. Yeah, struck a chord, struck a chord, Survivor. Pure chance, right? Didn't matter what you did. Run, honey, they can not find you for a statistical seven minutes. So what you ticked up arrest quotas? Her face was mine. Her braunen augen on the opposite platform. No U-Bahn no more. Got to keep the riff raff out. Run, Sandy! Tight, tight river liver fever on this tween decade. The tweens, the tweens, like you never seen, let me take control honey, I love these kinds of joystick cameras.

    No, Dear God. Yes, yes, yes. Yes in the streets they are rhyming with your ten year old's tribeca rap it has 15, views, it's not free entertainment yet because COPS is just not quite Manhattan's style, Run Sandy! Jones just ignited her second stage. It's not Deborah Sweinburg sipping her Gibson and watching that television sky as she hunts terrorists in the War Room, no no no no. It's just this new scheduling program I found honey.

    It's voice activated and it scans up to 75 yards in degrees! I could download a copy for you, honey! Have you heard it on the radio? It's called: Eat it. Man those kids can dance. They're like Negroes. Right on 5th Avenue. I've no idea what you are talking about. Turn up the volume. I'm trying to get this body moving. You can't get out. After the flood. For a whole sixteen hours. Time for over twenty St Krispin's Day Speeches. Some times it's time for the redoubt. I saw her crash, Dad! Mom crashed! Connecticut is coming closer. Don't shoot till you see the whites of the eyes.

    My skateboard is set for jump and I have electrosensitive vacuum slides on my palms! Don't worry, this bacterium has a half-life of only 18 hours. It's just some mild unpleasantness. Stick that half pipe on your minivan's roof! John saw Peg Leg Stuyvesant down by the shore. Let's stick him up, see what falls out. Mark to your fuel cell market, Amsterdam, fresh bodies are the new tulip. Why should I stay. I'd be crazy not to follow, follow where you lead, Thom with your mad eyes.

    A green cat's eye. Some of the soccer moms crash land successfully and make a good 19th century commune in Alberta, near the oil sands. Finally we invaded Canada. With minivans. Tomatoes, potatoes. You say tomato, I say potato-masher. We're just waiting in the wings, Sid. Who's in the audience tonight? Like a mitochondrion, I only stick with you because there are no others. Was that what it was, Washington?

    I guess the Hessians had to be somewhere. Might as well have been Radio City Music Hall. Yeah, yeah, Tendrillar Louis the Fourteenth! It's Sun King Podcast App, put it in your mouth and swallow. They are real clean living. They drink smoothies with protein. Wheatgrass isn't bad, you should try it. And they like good pastrami. They know censorship is wrong. But good taste is important, isn't it? I know I've often talked about the city on the hill but I've never really sat down to describe how I feel about it.

    Bush meat is a vegetable. A thousand, coming on two now. Do I hear three? That sound, Green Hill or Green Park, some Ides of Rocket Summer, it's like sprinklers and bar-b-ques and subways at night, it's saxophones and plastic bucket drums, cicadas and punched chads. Hold my hand, honey. The galleon is docking. The helicopter or the cyanide? Wittgenstein on Translation In this paper I shall discuss Hans-Johann Glock's recent interpretation of the later Wittgenstein's views on translation Glock builds on some earlier work by Peter Hacker And yet, Glock does not believe that Wittgenstein's position is threatened by Davidson's attack on conceptual relativism.

    Indeed, Glock argues that Wittgenstein himself in good part supplies us with the arguments needed for a counterattack on key pillars of Davidson's classic text. DEEPTI MEMORIES Rainbow in the sky stars in the moonlight, flowers in the sunbeam, melts your heart, perfume your dream n illusion, euphoria lightens your way, waves sensualize your skin shell, real flavor taste "recreation" gives us the dreamy aroma of life, enlighten n spark your illusion, fragrant with flavored life, thrill n cheer u along the way, moon color sensation absorb everyone, u, me, everyone feels the same moon, connect everyone heart with equal waves.

    It took me so far away, yet infinitely close; To the depths of my inner sphere, A world of immeasurable possibilities, A world containing all images. In this Void I saw all, The lives that have long passed, and The illusory ones of the present; Places beyond space and time, But the future I could not foresee, For through it I had yet to walk. A voice that was no voice spoke: The mind is Your only gateway to me. The mind, He said, allows You to breath underwater. The mind, She said, insights triangles, squares, and enneacontakaienneagons in nature. The mind, It said, holds the universe together.

    I am one with the voice that is Vacuum Dei: See what is in front of You, Touch the meager of heart, Hear the tongueless, Taste the sorrows, Decipher the maze I set forth. But first, You must free your mind from Maya. Un-manacle its power. In here, a ferocious balance dwells, Your escape from Orion, Each with its own line to etch But these words are deeper in meaning Than Your tamed mind can absorb. Subdue them, and You will live wisely. II The child, an instant later becomes the ancient. The still green flower becomes a tree, Simplicity is lost forevermore.

    The seed becomes a destiny That she cannot yet claim-nor ignore. What is a child in this world, If not a lily that adorns a lake? Removed from the evils of the world, Untouched by them, Yet in time feels them all. What is a child to do? The unrequested wisdoms of the dread ancients befall Her. Nowhere to flee, No one to guide. Who is to give Her counsel, In a task the prudent earthly elders shun? She listens to the winds for answers, Winds that gather truths from every land and every time, But she is barely old enough to comprehend.

    The moon reminds her of the Sun's path to Vacuum Dei; But its reflected light freezes her in separation. III In search of an answer, She kneels Attempts to go back to the moment Of the marriage between the grandfather clock and the heart. Like a lion cub watching its prey, An Angel seized the moment, and Shared his form of wisdom: "Why does this lucid realization make you so afraid? With this newfound wisdom, The Lord seized your mind. In the Void that is eternal and infinite, You embraced the Lord.

    The Lord showed you all, The breaths that are long gone, and The lives your mission will touch. The Lord showed you your path to wisdom: The angles of darkness you will eliminate, The delights you will manifest, The evils you will face. In this Void, you have seen the Lord, and Have been given the key to heaven, Allow me to guide your mission! Through years of pondering the Angel's words, I realize that, unlike his My mission is no crusade, But war against myself to free myself, To free the divine imagination within a mortal life.

    In Vacuum Dei I learned that Each soul passes through this world Only to move to another- An infinite cycle The breaths we take Are also to give life to new inspirations, The fragmented lives we live Are also to touch one another, The laughter and sadness Are also to weave us together. There are no religions forged from Vacuum Dei, Only in our minds, only in their purest forms Vacuum Dei is a part of us, And we are a part of its eternal emptiness. But I had to accept That life in this world Is an ephemora, Before I could endeavor To flare the Void in the yet unaware I had to accept the blessing, Before I could pass it on to another.

    Susan Berishaj. Presenting SIMON PERCHIK You put up the roof creaking under each arm as if this tree knows when and climbs till its leaves no longer heat the Earth --you set aside rooms for the roots that opened into hillsides turning away and with the last nail you build hallways the way river water still carries off the smell from leaves falling on wet roads already along the branches :wave after wave with no one in your arms --you save a place for the door to grasp this shaky house and there will be children all next Spring climbing out and fruit that has the heaviness from rolling on the ground.

    For more information, including free e-books, his essay titled "Magic, Illusion and Other Realities" and a complete bibliography, please visit his website at www. The Eagleman Dawn Robey The eagleman said I could too So I took the plunge into the icy void The freezing silence of falling to the jagged rocks below snapped as I was lifted by the mighty pull of the wind-blown wings on my back the Eagleman said I could too and laughed a little at my pale face as we flew on in time it really hurt hair and feathers ruffled and tangled skin a slow scream of ice hot-blood bumps through my joints through my head sweat singes my eyes trickling, tickling down my spine like my mind's eye is crying and when I thought "I can't take this anymore" we reached our destination perched on the cliff sharing the meat the eagleman and I laughed into the moon For Tjarke Maas R.

    Praeger That There Were When was there ever, will there be any, would that there were. Covered with confetti, streets of color, A landscape I never imagined, a loon I never heard, conversations that were not meant, people that were not present. Extruded aluminum from aviation, advances in fabrics, and a new generation of colors and dyes would broaden horizons as well. But this era also had its dark side. Advertising and mass branding created the consumerist society, and with it the infamy and waste of planned obsolescence.

    And while craft may have been introduced to an even larger audience, we must ask, at what price? Craft as a noble pursuit by serious artists was debased in the public eye. Because something could be so easy and require no originality, it could be done by anyone—from school kids to grannies. No training. No skill. No experience. No commitment. And thus the very craft of craft was eliminated. Studio craft presents an alternative to the factory as the locus where objects, by dint of big tools and complex processes, can be made.

    Its proponents have demonstrated that these could be modified to work in smaller environments. With it has come the single most important sea change in the way craft has been conceived and executed: one person making an entire object from conception to completion. Here in the first decade of the twenty-first century, we find craft at a high-water mark. Perhaps it is a need to find and hold on to tradition and comfort and trust in a world turned upside down. Perhaps it is that many people today have the means to acquire the finest examples of the craft tradition.

    But whatever the cause, the effect is clear: Craft is recognized, perhaps as never before, as an important part of our national heritage and psyche. The story of craft in America is a journey of renewal and reinvention. We are a country people came to, rather than left from: a place big and brawny enough to accept and absorb the ebb and flow as well as the personalities, cultures, and skills immigrants brought with them.

    It is the output of a new generation, drawing on the skills of their ancestors. The net result today is an amalgam of sources and resources unparalleled in history. With the breadth of our geography, the depth of our economy, and the openness of our society, things are tried here that might never be considered elsewhere in the world. It sings with renewed vitality like never before. It would be a shame if we saw elegance without the exclamation point, design without the delight. We would be missing something, and it would be sad, indeed. For F. Scott Fitzgerald there may have been no second acts in American life, but the genealogy of craft proves him wrong.

    There is nothing like American craft as a powerful reflection of our history, our culture, our society, and our common purpose. It is as much a part of our collective DNA as our imagination. It is a by-product of all we were, all we are, and all we can become. In sum, craft is us. Perhaps no one brought more praise to the American craftsman than the cabinetmaker and fifth-generation American John Townsend. His signature style was typically grand pieces capped by perfectly proportioned block-and-shell fronts and ball-and-claw curved cabriole legs possessed of both delicacy and power.

    The strange and rather marvelous truth is that there was one area of the visual arts in which an American arguably was the best in the Western world, skilled and inventive to a degree that nobody else in Colonial America and very few in England or Europe could rival. This art was fine cabinetmaking; the place was Newport, R. It was thanks to Townsend. Perhaps the best remembered was the silversmith Paul Revere.

    Versatile and prolific, he produced more than five thousand silver pieces—much of it, like tableware or buckles, for citizens of middling means. It also established a new American style of silver. Inside and out, the lodge is an awe-inspiring place for all who visit and an homage to the crafts of the Pacific Northwest and the people who practiced them, from woodcarvers and stone masons to blacksmiths and needlecraft artists. Like the mountain upon which it is built, Timberline Lodge is symbolic of many things not seen in the timber and stone which make it.

    T he building exemplifies a progressive social program which has revived dormant arts and pointed the way for their perpetuation. It presents concretely the evidence that men still aspire to the dream, often secret but always universal, of becoming greater than themselves through association with others in a common purpose. Just as women have been at the forefront as artists and entrepreneurs, they have been pivotal in establishing and nurturing organizations that support craft artists and foster appreciation of their work.

    A common thread emerged in the s and s as craft was seen as an economic engine that could drive self-sufficiency among victims of hard times, led by the efforts of Lucy Morgan in Appalachia. Less well known was Mary Hill Coolidge, a Bostonian who summered in Sandwich, New Hampshire, and formed Sandwich Home Industries in as a means of encouraging rural handicrafts and helping their makers earn additional income. As the Depression deepened, and the need to support craft arts statewide became apparent, she founded the League of New Hampshire Craftsmen and served as its first president.

    A philanthropist, teacher, and activist, Hodge directed the studio from its inception in until her death in From the outset, its mission was to complement the education programs at institutions like the Portland Arts and Crafts Society. More than merely a place to showcase established and emerging artists, the Museum of Contemporary Craft connects with the community to expand the audience for craft through workshops tailored to adults, children, and families.

    But the grandest of the grand dames of craft was Aileen Osborn Webb. Then, too, she helped establish the School of American Craftsmen, now at the Rochester Institute of Technology, and organized a international conference of craft artists at Asilomar, California, which announced the studio crafts movement to the world. Our debt to them is far-reaching. Since then, women curators and show directors, like Eudorah Moore and her annual California Design exhibitions at the Pasadena Museum of Art in the s and s, have furthered their influence.

    By introducing a jury system, handsome catalogs, and promotional efforts that included coverage in national magazines—she heightened interest and raised the bar. The importance of these shows cannot be underestimated; at the time, artists had few other ways to reach out to their fellow craftsmen or to find an appreciative audience for their work. As traveling exhibitions crisscrossed the country, they brought tangible evidence of advancements in the field and stimulated new bursts of creative activity wherever they appeared.

    Webb and her fellow craft advocates changed the landscape. They knew that if people could have a better understanding of handmade objects and more access to them, crafts could have an influence on mass-produced design. They also felt that craft could improve not only the lives of those who did the work but also the lives of those who enjoyed their products. Craft and community have always been inseparable. America is a nation of diverse cultures and each has given rise to distinctive crafts.

    Having these threads come together, coalesce, [is] what has created the fabric of our nation, not a traditional fabric, but something different, something uniquely American. Members of religious communities such as the Shakers, Quakers, Amish, and Mennonites have added their design aesthetic and handwork to the structure of American crafts. They have created craft traditions that are strong, essential, elevating, and, by now, recognized as distinctly American. American Indians from the plains, the plateaus, and the pueblos have passed on their own creationist cultures through the oral tradition of storytelling, reflected in the symbolism and representation of their physical crafts, from pottery to painting to beadwork.

    In the twenty-first century, the legends, mysteries, and messages remain constant, interpreted anew by the latest generation of the same communities. The work of furniture makers, carvers, glassblowers, and potters who evolved a very American style from their homeland heritages pays homage to the skills and styles of their forbearers. The abundance of community is infinite and may also be found among teachers, students, and schools throughout the country, from the traditions of the Penland School of Crafts in North Carolina to the arts and crafts curricula developed at the California College of the Arts in northern California, from the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan to Berea College in Kentucky, where the students work their way through college in the craft shops.

    This is craft as communal family tree: Skills take root in the rich soil of the campus and are carried out by each and every student who passes through its gates. The exploration of the many communities of craft reveals the origins and substance of our artistic identity—elucidating who we are as a people and highlighting the objects we craft by hand to give meaning to our lives and experiences.

    Sometimes beautiful handcrafted objects come from surprising, unexpected sources. This is certainly the case with the exemplary furnishings and household goods created by the skilled hands of Shakers. Although they were a religious community and not affiliated with any craft society or guild, the Shakers, believing in the inherent beauty, utility, and spiritual transcendence of objects made by hand, were inspired to create superbly designed and crafted items.

    She and eight devoted followers emigrated to America in and established the first Shaker settlement in upstate New York, in Watervliet, on a piece of wilderness land near Albany. By , at the peak of their membership, there were nearly six thousand Shaker Brothers and Sisters living and working together in nineteen official communities, scattered from Maine to Kentucky. The furniture and products the Shakers created for their community needs were spare and beautiful, intelligently designed, well constructed, and sturdy.

    Today, Shaker objects have become classic examples of functionalist design and virtuosic craftsmanship, appreciated by collectors for their honest, graceful style and superior workmanship. Their guiding principle was simplicity in all matters pertaining to material, temporal, and spiritual life. Believers would attain true selflessness and eternal redemption by following these Shaker doctrines. As communitarians, the Shakers set themselves apart. They shunned extraneous ornament and adornment in their surroundings, furnishings, and personal dress; they required neatness, order, uniformity, and utility; and they upheld a strict work ethic that demanded industrious, conscientious effort.

    Laziness, slovenly behavior, and inferior work were not to be tolerated. Reflecting their belief that work was an act of worship, all forms of work, from the most menial and manual to the most skilled and sophisticated, were to be performed with care and a commitment to perfection.

    Labor to God for your own soul as though there were no other soul on earth. Community buildings that formerly comprised Shaker villages were sold or converted to historical properties after the last member living in the settlement died. Today only one Shaker community remains—a farm and village at Sabbathday Lake, Maine—and fewer than a handful of Believers are living there. All their furnishings and household goods were made according to the Shaker precepts that governed every aspect of their lives: simplicity, utility, order, permanence, versatility, clean lines, and unadorned surfaces.

    Perhaps the most iconic Shaker objects are the slat-back or ladder-back chairs: the side chairs and rockers that were made by the thousands for Believers in every settlement and produced in great variety for sale in Shaker village stores and catalogs to this day. Shaker craftsmen brought to their communities the skills they had acquired in The World before they converted, and they carried with them the knowledge of worldly styles. In general, Shaker furniture is remarkable not for its originality but for its elegance and refined simplicity. Shaker ladder-back chairs are based on the vernacular New England side chairs and rockers that were popular in the early s, but they reveal notable refinements of form—a composed, quiet grace in their straightforward design, balanced proportions, and delicate profiles—that set them apart from their lumbering ancestors.

    The chairs are angled back at a slant to provide greater support and comfortable seating; they are light and easily moved from room to room as necessitated by community activities; they can be hung on pegboards when not in use. Many were constructed with woven-tape seats, a Shaker advancement that made them more resilient, durable, and attractive, the tape offering a variety of colors and patterns—checkerboard, herringbone, and basket weave.

    Other materials used for seat construction included rush, splint, leather, plank, and cane. The aesthetic impression of the Shaker ladder-back has strongly influenced chair design for the past two centuries. Its form and concept are continually being reworked and reinvented by modern furniture makers, who borrow from the store of Shaker style. By merging key elements of Shaker design with their own vision, contemporary makers evoke the purity, simplicity, and utility of Shaker objects and reference the plain living and spiritual lifestyle of the Shakers, while adding their personal stamp of creative expression and artistry.

    What results is not so much a hybrid as an adaptation: a new look at a timeless form that is inflected by history but succeeds in making a statement of its own time and place, often poignantly commenting on ideas that have currency in American contemporary culture. Shaker baskets, wooden boxes, and buckets are ineffably simple and practical, yet they show a cultivated sensitivity to proportion, balance, line, color, texture, and volume—the formal qualities that generally define sculpture. Shaker baskets, woven in open or tight ornamental weaves depending on function, delight the eye that beholds them; oval boxes, with their repeating pattern of swallow-tail joints and perfectly aligned copper tacks, seduce the hand that holds them; and buckets, in a spectrum of colors and shapes, display precisionist attention to detail—the firm anchoring and proper arc of the handle, the exact fit of the lid, and the delicate banding.

    Sisters in every settlement were occupied in making the vast array of textiles necessary to supply the community. Shaker textiles are recognized today for their consummate refinement. The workmanship, from the homespun thread to the expert weaving and sewing, was exemplary. Characteristic of Shaker household textiles are their restrained, orderly patterns—delicate stripes and lattice designs—finely woven in two colors, most often white with blue. This nearly mass-production approach was economical and resulted in consistency and sameness—all attributes coveted by the Shakers.

    As many historians have noted, the Shakers were not as aesthetically severe as they are often portrayed, and their world was neither colorless nor completely stripped of decorative appeal. The handcrafting of beautiful objects and environments reaffirmed their deeply held conviction that heaven—a spiritual place of purity, simplicity, and intrinsic beauty—could be built on earth. Many of the cardinal principles upon which Shakerism was founded were shared by other religious sects that settled in America during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Condemned at home as heretics for holding radical beliefs, the persecuted congregants began migrating from England and Continental Europe to America in the mids.

    By the turn of the nineteenth century, large numbers of Quakers and Amish were moving westward to establish communities in Indiana, Iowa, and Ohio. About one hundred years later, the Quaker and Amish were followed by the Mennonites and adherents of the Community of True Inspiration, the Inspirationists.

    For more than years, members of the American Quaker, Amish, and Mennonite communities have variously built religious meetinghouses and community dwellings in the simple, unadorned style characteristic of Shaker settlements, and the women have woven fabric and constructed garments, handsome hand-embroidered samplers, and designed, pieced, and stitched remarkably fine quilts, for which they have become renowned. Committed to communal living and accomplished in the traditional arts of weaving and quilting, basket making, woodworking, and blacksmithing, the Inspirationists built their villages by hand on the rural Iowa land they purchased to accommodate their twelve hundred believers, each village comprising between forty and one hundred buildings.

    The Community of True Inspiration was a religious sect founded in Germany in Fleeing persecution, its members converged in the liberal province of Hesse. Most of the Inspirationists who had come to America were of the artisan and peasant classes, which prepared them for the tremendous work of building entire villages from the ground up.

    The planning and architecture of their communities reflected their beliefs in simplicity, equality, and uniformity. In their new American community, domestic interiors were simple, although far more comfortable and colorful than those of other religious communities, such as the Shakers. The silhouettes were similar to their European counterparts but construction was simplified and with little ornament. Although isolated in their community, the Amana did subscribe to several newspapers and trade journals, so contemporary design and ideas did, to a certain extent, enter their world.

    Church interiors, however, remained spartan, in a traditionally Germanic way. The plain pine benches, some over 20 feet long, were joined with wood pegs for easy disassembly. The Amana were able to produce nearly everything they needed. Cabinetmakers made not only furnishings but also wheelbarrows for the fields and spoons and other utensils for the communal kitchens. Blacksmiths made everything from machinery to crochet hooks.

    Craftsmen made baskets of split oak and coiled grasses, but willow was the most common material, and each village planted its own willow crop with seedlings that had originated in Germany. The basket shapes were modified to suit their intended purpose: Apple-picking baskets had two handles on one side and were tied to the body, leaving both hands free; laundry baskets had hinged lids to secure the contents; and baskets used for gathering heavy crops had iron handles for extra strength.

    Weavers created pattern, color, and texture with peeled and unpeeled branches. The two most significant ventures were the production of woven woolens and the calico print. The Inspirationists first made woolen materials in one of the early Germany communes. The work was so successful and necessary, as they used it for their own garments that they brought the equipment to Ebenezer, and then to Iowa.

    The Amana villagers raised thousands of sheep but imported additional wool from places as far away as Australia to meet their needs. Calico, a printed or painted cotton muslin imported from Calcutta, was a popular textile in Europe from the seventeenth century. Unbleached cotton muslin and twill were imported to the Amana Colonies from southern and eastern states, then dyed and printed at the factories. Printing was done in several ways: by hand with carved blocks, by roller printing, by discharge the pattern is bleached out of dyed fabric , or by resist the pattern is drawn on with a dye-resistant paste that is then washed away to reveal the pattern after the fabric has been dyed.

    The patterns were usually white on a blue, brown, or black ground with a small geometric design, stylized flowers, or narrow stripes. Thousands of designs were created, all of them by Amana members. Like the woolen flannel, the calico was first produced for their own use, as it was appropriate for their plain dress. Soon, however, they saw the opportunity to cultivate a larger market and produced sample catalogs and traveling salesmen who went from New York to California. At its height in the early s, the Amana factory was producing 4, yards of material a day and grossing enough income to support all seven villages.

    In , Amana society members voted to end communalism and establish a joint stock corporation to run the economic aspects of the villages, with a church society to oversee the spiritual components. The restructuring, coupled with the hardships of the Great Depression, forced the corporation to close many of the crafts shops to concentrate on the production of more profitable items, such as furniture and baked goods. Foerstner did just that, employing the talents of his community of craftsmen. This led to Amana Refrigeration, which grew into one of the largest appliance companies in America, with its humble beginnings in the former wool factory.

    By the mid-twentieth century the post—World War II studio crafts movement was gaining importance in the overall discussion of American art and beginning a reexamination of—and appreciation for—American crafts. With a renewed sense of pride and industry—and tourism—many of the old Amana crafts were revived.

    In , a group of Amana members established the Amana Heritage Society in order to preserve the history and experiences of the Community of True Inspiration. There are, of course, many differences in the doctrines and practices of the Quakers, Amish, Mennonites, and Inspirationists. A common thread, and one that ties these congregations to craft making, is their shared respect for hand work.

    The most enduring aesthetic legacy of the Quakers, Amish, and Mennonites has been their textile arts, particularly their quilts. This is a result, in part, of the long-standing tradition and continued development of quilt making among the women of these communities, where skills and advancements have passed from mother to daughter, carrying on their commitment to excellence and superior workmanship.

    Like other pioneer women of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Quaker, Amish, and Mennonite women made quilts as part of their dowries and later to provide warm bedding for their families. They also made quilts for donation. Women cut, pieced, and expertly stitched outstanding quilts, which they gave to their community leaders to be sold or auctioned to Outsiders.

    This is still the practice in many communities, and the Mennonite Relief Auctions in Goshen, Indiana, are recognized as a source of exceptional quilts. Along with the plain sects the Amish, Mennonite, and Brethren, who adapted the techniques to their own use , other Pennsylvania German religious groups also make many quilts. Innovation, resourcefulness, and imagination soon became part of the expressive vocabulary of pioneer quilters.

    English quilters had employed piecing techniques as an element in their work, but Americans were the first to organize pieced tops into blocks. Quaker and Mennonite quilts, which share many characteristics derived from similar traditions, can be grouped together stylistically. Interestingly, and paradoxically, the decorative, colorful, and intricate patterns of their quilts are in marked contrast to the plainness of their households and their personal dress.

    Thus clad, women identified their religious persuasion and affirmed their separateness from the outside world. Although their religious convictions demanded austerity in their home, personal effects, and dress, the Quaker and Mennonite world was not without beauty, evidenced by their lush gardens and strikingly bold and multihued quilts.

    Linda Boynton, an authority on Mennonite culture, explains this perceived contradiction:. There is no room for pride within the culture. Regulations on dress and lifestyle are in part to squelch temptations toward vanity. But the line here is delicate. In work, a job well done is imperative, yet pride in that job is not tolerated. There are few exceptions, but quilting is one of them. This is an avenue in which a woman may show off her skills unashamedly. Quilting allows her a vehicle for the expression of feelings otherwise restricted.

    The freedom of expression allows these women the opportunity for creativity in a world of limited options. Through quilting, utilitarian objects are elevated through imagination, enterprise and love to the status of an original art form. The best Quaker and Mennonite quilts are considered to be those made between and These quilts provided Quaker women the means to express their hopes, beliefs, and individual stories—poignant documents of family and community histories that kept memories alive through a visual record long after they might otherwise have faded or been lost in the passage of time.

    Inexpensive calico prints purchased in local stores or by mail-order catalog often supplement the mix of reclaimed materials. Mennonite quilts are characterized by their dynamic interplay of multiple materials pieced together to create vibrant patterns emboldened by lively color combinations and contrasting textures. Consisting of small squares or diamonds arranged in patterns such as Sunshine and Shadow Trip Around the World , Log Cabin, Philadelphia Pavement, and a variety of Star compositions, these exuberant, multicolored, complex quilts make bold, graphic statements that are commendable for their technical virtuosity, fine stitchery, and compelling visual effects.

    Effectively—until the mid-twentieth century—Amish women were unaware of established conventions; their quilts were made without the pressure or distraction of external opinion and custom. Most Amish quilts were made from solid-color fabrics in basic, natural colors and earthy hues. The pieces of the quilt top were commonly sewn together by machine foot powered, not electric , and were primarily fabricated of wool in the s, of cotton in the s, and of rayon and other synthetic materials in the s. Like the Quakers and Mennonites, the Amish endeavor to live simply and humbly and to eschew frivolity, pretension, and excessiveness.

    Because patterned and printed materials were forbidden in Old Order Amish clothing—the sect viewed the wearing of printed-patterned fabrics as signs of vanity and pride—printed fabrics were not used for the quilt tops either. In the past, decorative printed fabrics, if used at all, have been limited to quilt backings. Yet Amish quilts are far from identical.

    Each community has historically produced distinctive quilts that reflected the particular religious practices and regional preferences. The quilts made then are typically of wool and have large flat planes of rich colors juxtaposed to create striking designs, resulting in compositions that are often astonishing for their daring color contrasts, tonal variations, and graphic effects. The quilts emanating from Mifflin County—the other large Amish settlement in Pennsylvania—are the work of three different Amish communities, all named after important Amish leaders: the Nebraska Amish, who are the most conservative of the three; the Byler Amish; and the Renno or Peachey Amish.

    Cottons and rayons are the materials of choice for Mifflin County quilters, although wool and polyester are not uncommon. Quilts of the Nebraska Amish are generally dark and subtle in coloration, incorporating shades of brown, blue, purple, and gray in such designs as One Patch, Four Patch, Nine Patch, and Bars.

    Byler quilts are further identifiable by the integration of dazzling, brilliant-colored fabrics in pinks, yellows, oranges, and blues. Their quilts are similar to midwestern Amish quilts in the use of repeating block patterns—Log Cabin, Shoofly, and Stars were apparently their favorites.

    Also similar are the placement of the blocks against a dark background and the frequent use of borders of black or dark blue. Midwestern Amish quilts are much like those of their Renno or Peachey brethren, repeating block constructions used against dark, solid-colored, plain backgrounds. Constructed mostly of cotton fabrics, often from vividly colored polished cottons and sateens, they are easily recognizable within the Amish quilt group as their patterns are frequently the same as their non-Amish neighbors.

    Midwestern quilters often appropriated such mainstream patterns as Stars, Baskets, Bow Tie, and Log Cabin, and then modified them. Perhaps only in the Midwest can one find an Amish quilt with pastel colors. The softer, quieter composition is markedly different from the boldness and exuberance of archetypal Amish designs. Quilting has persisted and remained vital throughout the centuries. A handmade quilt unfolds its story: It communicates aesthetic diversity, complexity of workmanship, the traditions it engages and expands, and the blend of shared community values and individual artistry that has produced its design.

    These attributes are embedded in the quilts associated with various religious communities, and they have been carried forth into the present by those who continue the tradition, assuring that quilting retains its purpose and potency. Contemporary quilters and textile artists bring a current view to the art form and new technology, materials, and ways of thinking to the traditional techniques and perspectives of their ancestors. Further, another shift occurred: As veterans returned and enrolled in college using the benefits of their GI Bill, male students began to attend textile classes. Quilt making as an art form was embraced by both men and women.

    1901-1902 Meeting Minutes

    Michael James and Arturo Alonzo Sandoval are exemplary representatives of this first generation of male artists who reinterpret the quilt as a canvas for contemporary expression, and Wendy Huhn represents a new movement among younger women who become quilters to use the the quilt format as an interchange between material and meaning. Many contemporary furniture makers have been inspired to create new chair forms by recalling traditional Shaker ladder-backs in their designs.

    The Shaker ladder-back was also used as source material and point of departure in the whimsical chairs designed by Jon Brooks and Garry Knox Bennett. Brooks amusingly elongates the back of his chair to an impossible length, and one wonders if his design is a playful reference to an actual Shaker ladder, such as the one shown here, used for apple picking.

    Bennett wittily constructs the ladder-back of his chair to mimic a modern-day ladder, although presented here in smaller scale. Bennett further complicates the chair by incorporating the seemingly real ladder of the ladder-back with a Z profile, the overall design of which mirrors the famous modernist Zig Zag Chair by Gerrit Rietveld—a clever combining of art historical references, indeed. In his contemporary designs, George Nakashima, the Japanese-American architect, furniture maker, and master craftsman, embraced the Shaker aesthetic of simplicity, harmony, fitness for purpose, and reverence for the natural beauty of wood.

    Nakashima, trained as an architect and furniture designer, honed his woodworking skills while incarcerated in an internment camp in the Idaho desert during World War II. He produced many functional furniture forms, particularly benches, during his long life. Shakers produced these long spindle-back benches to be used in their meetinghouses, their places of worship, as pews, with the added requirements that the benches be light in weight and portable.

    The spindles are delicately hand turned and slightly canted back for comfort. The legs and stretchers are austerely slimmed to economize on material and underscore the minimalist profile. These features impart a regularity of line, rhythm, ethereal lightness, and natural grace to the design. The conventional right-angled, modestly proportioned bench seat has been reconfigured as an organic, monolithic freeform plank of beautifully figured wood. Some seats retain natural edges; some retain inherent imperfections.

    Nakashima carefully chose each slab of wood and precisely cut, sanded, and finished it by hand. This massive, freely contoured bench seat of polished walnut, from which the spindle-back lithely rises, exalts the raw beauty and physical power of the wood. To bring this living material to the work bench, ultimately to give it a second life. The roots of contemporary craft lie in the Arts and Crafts movement, which emerged as a social and artistic response to the dehumanizing effects of the Industrial Revolution.

    The first people to express these ideas lived in mid-nineteenth century England—the most industrialized country in the modern world. Rapid, unregulated mechanization had forced workers into overcrowded, polluted cities, where many lived in squalor and were exploited in dangerous working conditions. Critics alleged that industrialization made workers into wage slaves and tenement dwellers, lowered the standards of design and workmanship, and diminished the quality of life by destroying human dignity and creativity.

    Reformers, among them John Ruskin and William Morris, sought to revive a better, preindustrial world in which factories were banished and the necessities of the simple life were produced in conditions that would restore harmony and beauty to daily life. In their antipathy toward the factory, the proponents of the Arts and Crafts movement saw the arts and crafts as instruments for social change. The movement took root both philosophically and aesthetically in England, spread through continental Europe, and crossed the Atlantic in the early s.

    In America the movement permeated the visual arts and architecture and effected sweeping changes in domestic life. Its philosophy, ideals, and doctrines have left a stylistic imprint on the design and making of crafts and provided the standards against which the quality and worth of handcrafted objects are judged today. The essential tenets of the movement were conceived and developed as early as the s by John Ruskin, an art critic and professor at Oxford University. Ruskin preached spiritual transcendence through harmony with nature and believed that the unity of heart, hand, and mind in the practice of traditional crafts was the best way in which to live a full and vital life.

    Both men aspired to reform not only the appearance of useful art objects—those that were variously known as the decorative arts, the applied arts, and the crafts—but also the processes by which these objects were made, the environment of their making, and the way in which they were taught, thought about, exhibited, and discussed. The teaching of art, they felt, had been corrupted since the Renaissance by elitist academies that had created artificial, hierarchical distinctions between the high arts of painting and sculpture and the applied arts.

    Factories adopted economies of scale that imposed an onerous division between intellectual and physical labor in the workforce. Assembly lines increased the speed of production and profits, but they also separated the craft from the craftsman: No longer did one individual control the making of an object from its inception to its realization. Declaring that handmade objects were not only qualitatively better but also morally superior, the advocates of the Arts and Crafts movement promoted an ideal system in which designer and maker were one and the same. Urbanization, immigration, and the factory system seemed responsible to many for destroying community, undermining the work ethic, destabilizing the family, and replacing the purity and godliness of the past with greed and commercialism.

    The rise of giant corporations and the nationalization of business and intellectual life also seemed destined to crush the individual, leaving him or her a cog in the machine of progress. Less practical but equally influential was the craft theorist Charles Robert Ashbee — A year later, after a class discussion about the dignity of manual work, the class decided to do something about it—and resolved to decorate the dining room of Toynbee Hall.

    The success of this enterprise gave Ashbee the idea of establishing a school for the settlement house, and in he founded the School and Guild of Handicraft with the intention of providing training and craft production side by side the Guild of Handicraft was started a year later. In , in an effort to distance the school from the pressures of London, Ashbee relocated it from the city to western England.

    In the Cotswolds, in the town of Chipping Campden, he formed eight separate workshops that specialized in wrought iron, silver, furniture, printed books, and other crafts. Batchelder, an influential teacher, writer, and tile maker; and H. Financial difficulties forced the guild to close after about six years, but by this time it had received much good press, and Ashbee had made a few influential speaking trips to America, during which he spread the word about his activities.

    Americans who wanted to take part in the reforming efforts did so in a multitude of ways. Two utopian communities, Byrdcliffe in New York and Rose Valley in Pennsylvania, attempted a more idealistic approach, with mixed results.